Manual Time and Displacement

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This article discusses a concept in sociology. For the concept in physics, see time dilation. Time displacement in sociology refers to the idea that new forms of.
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Pixels in the layer that correspond to bright areas in the displacement map are replaced by pixels in the same position but at a specified number of seconds forward in time. Likewise, pixels in the layer that correspond to dark areas in the displacement map are replaced by pixels at a specified number of seconds backward in time. You can use any layer as a displacement map, though using a grayscale image lets you more easily see brightness levels and predict how pixels will be displaced.

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The Time Displacement effect automatically replaces pixels across time without keyframes or expressions. However, you can animate other properties to vary the effect over time. To better understand how pixels are displaced in time, think of the displacement occurring in steps, as follows:. If the dimensions of the displacement map are different from the dimensions of the effect layer, you can specify whether the map is centered or stretched to fit.

After Effect uses the luminance value of each pixel in the displacement map to calculate the displacement of the corresponding pixel in the effect layer, based on the maximum displacement amount. A luminance value of 0 produces maximum backward displacement, meaning that pixels at the current time are replaced by pixels from a previous time. A luminance value of produces maximum positive displacement, meaning that pixels at the current time are replaced by pixels at a future time.

A luminance value of produces no displacement. For other values in grayscale displacement maps, you can calculate the displacement amount, in seconds, using the following equation:. After Effects displaces each pixel in the image by replacing a pixel in the image at the current time with the pixel in the same position at another time. The other time is the displacement amount in seconds for the pixel, calculated in step 3. Suppose you specified 2 seconds as the maximum time displacement. After Effects finds the luminance value of each pixel in the displacement map, and then it replaces the corresponding pixels at the current time with pixels from another time based on the maximum time of 2 seconds.

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A luminance value of in the displacement map replaces that pixel with the pixel 2 seconds ahead in the same position. A luminance value of 42 replaces that pixel with the pixel 1. Sets the maximum time, in seconds, from which pixels are replaced, before or after the current time. Only luminance values of 0 or maximum darkness and maximum brightness produce the maximum time displacement. All other luminance values produce time displacements of less than the maximum time.

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Sets the number of frames per second in which to replace pixels. Increasing Time Resolution can greatly increase rendering time. Note: After Effects uses the layer you select in its original form, without any masking, effects, or transformations you may have applied. If you want to use the layer with those alterations included in the displacement map, precompose that layer using the Move All Attributes into the New Composition option.

See Precompose layers. The Timewarp effect gives you precise control over a wide range of parameters when changing the playback speed of a layer, including interpolation methods, motion blur, and source cropping to eliminate unwanted artifacts. You can use the Timewarp effect to create simple slow-motion or fast-motion results or more complex retiming. The Timewarp effect works independently of the Frame Blending switch in the Timeline panel. To use the Timewarp effect on a layer with an interlaced footage item as its source, double the frame rate in the composition settings.

When you render to final output, modify your render settings in the Render Queue panel to set the frame rate appropriate for the output type. The Timewarp effect is based on Kronos, a component of the Furnace software package from The Foundry. For detailed documentation on motion vectors and motion estimation parameters, see the Furnace documentation in PDF on the Foundry website.

This effect works with 8-bpc and bpc color.

In After Effects CS6, this effect works in bit color. Apply the Timewarp effect, set Speed to , enable motion blur within the effect, and use the manual shutter control features to adjust the motion blur. When changing frame rates, image information must be created interpolated for the frames that lie between the original frames of an image.

The Method setting determines how interpolated frames are generated:.

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  5. Creates a new frame by analyzing the pixel movement in nearby frames and creating motion vectors. Motion vectors represent the movement of a pixel or block of pixels from one frame to the next. Images between frames are interpolated using these vectors. Choose Speed to specify a time adjustment as a percentage. Choose Source Frame to specify a time adjustment by identifying which source frame is to play at which time.

    If you choose Source Frame for Adjust Time By, then you must animate the Source Frame property to do anything other than freeze on one frame. You can animate the Speed property, too, to change the time-remapping factor over time. This setting creates new frames one quarter of a frame interval and three quarters of a frame interval from an original frame, rather than using one original frame and one newly generated frame.

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    Original frames are deliberately excluded from the time-remapped series of frames in order to avoid the pulsing that would otherwise be seen on every other frame for a half-speed slowdown. Determines how many motion vectors are used during interpolation. The more vectors used, the longer the rendering time.

    A value of produces one vector per pixel.

    If the layer has fast-moving motion, it may look better with a lower Vector Details setting. Generates the final output from the closest single frame, as opposed to the closest two frames. The result is a sharper image, but jerkier motion. The quality of the filtering used to build the interpolated image. Extreme greatly increases rendering time. Determines the precision of pixel matching from one frame to the next. A higher value results in fewer motion vectors and more blending. If the image has heavy grain, try decreasing the Error Threshold so the low-level motion of the grain is ignored.

    Controls the weighting of the red, green, and blue channels in calculations used to analyze the image.

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    For example, setting Red Weight and Green Weight to zero means that only the blue channel is analyzed for motion. Determines the intensity of motion blur. The shutter angle is measured in degrees, simulating the exposure caused by a rotating shutter. Controls the quality of the motion blur. A higher value results in a smoother motion blur.

    The layer to use as a matte for defining the foreground and background areas of the image. White areas in the matte represent the foreground, black areas represent the background, and gray attenuates between foreground and background. Allows you to warp the layer to which the effect is applied by applying the motion vectors from the layer that you choose. If the image contains unwanted pixels or artifacts at the edges, use Source Crops controls to specify image boundaries.

    Displacement Calculator

    Pixels from the boundaries are repeated to fill the area beyond the boundaries to the edges of the layer. Time effects Search. Adobe After Effects User Guide. Select an article: Select an article:. Applies to: Adobe After Effects. Third-party effects in this category included with After Effects:. Echo effect. This effect works with 8-bpc, bpc, and bpc color. Echo Time seconds.

    Number of Echoes. Starting Intensity. The opacity of the first image in the echo sequence. Echo Operator. The blending operation used to combine the echoes. Combines the echoes by taking the maximum pixel values from all of the echoes.

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    8. Combines the echoes by taking the minimum pixel values from all of the echoes. Composite In Back. Composite In Front. Pixel Motion Blur CC. Posterize Time effect. Time Difference effect. This effect works with 8-bpc color. Time Offset. Absolute Difference.

      Displacement and Velocity

      Alpha Channel. Specifies how the alpha channel is calculated. Blends the alpha channels of the target layer and the effect layer.